BIBLE DOCTRINE OVERVIEW

Rev. Dr. Robert E. Baines, Jr.
(11/91; Reviewed 4/09)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction
The Bible
Old Testament
Law
History
Poetry
Prophecy
New Testament
Gospels
Acts
Epistles
Revelation
Doctrine
Bible
God the Father
Jesus Christ
The Holy Spirit
Humanity
Angles, Satan, and Demons
Sin
Salvation
The Church
Future Things
Conclusion



INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this course is to give an overview of basic Bible and doctrine knowledge. The student is expected to demonstrate a basic understanding of the two covenants, eight book groupings, and sixty-six books, in relation to the Bible overview portion of the course. The student is expected to demonstrate a basic understanding and familiarity with the workbook,regarding the doctrine overview portion of the course. Please note that much of this work is based on the reference material found in the Ryrie Study Bible.

THE BIBLE

Christians must understand the Bible is the word of God; therefore, it is the most reliable means of knowing God and His will for His people (see II Pet. 1:21; II Tim.3:16). Without active faith in God’s word, there is no pleasing God (see Heb. 11:6, 1); therefore, we are challenged to study and obey God’s word (see Ps. 1:2; II Tim. 2:15; 3:17).

OLD TESTAMENT

The old covenant basically says, “Hebrews live up to the Law and God will bless you (see Ex.19:5-6).” This agreement was ratified with animal blood (see Ex. 24:8). The Old Testament is a record of God’s dealings with the Hebrews in relation to the Old Covenant. Prior to the covenant’s ratification in Exodus, we have a record of the creation, the flood, Abraham and his descendants up to Joseph, and the Egyptian captivity. After the ratification of the covenant, we see the wilderness wandering, the incomplete conquest of the Canaan, life under the Judges and Kings, division of the Kingdom, warnings of captivity, captivity, and the return of Judah. Throughout the Old Testament, there is the prophecy of a Deliverer and a new covenant. The following is a general chronological order of events in the Old Testament:

Genesis Job Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Ruth Judges I Samuel Psalms II Samuel I Chronicles, Song of Solomon, Proverbs I Kings Ecclesiastes II Kings II Chronicles, Obadiah, Joel, Jonah, Amos, Hosea, Micah, Isaiah,Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Jeremiah, Lamentations Daniel Ezekiel Ezra Esther, Haggai, Zechariah Nehemiah Malachi.

Notice that the Old Testament is not part one through thirty-nine. In fact, if you read the first seventeen books and understand there were prophets telling the people to keep the covenant, you would get a good idea of what is going on in the Old Testament. The Old Testament is divided into the following four book groupings: law, history, poetry, and prophecy.

Review

1. According to the introduction, this course is designed to highlight some basic ideas regarding __________________ and ___________________________.

2. What passages suggest that the Bible is the most reliable means of knowing God and His will for our lives?

3. In your own words, discuss what was the Old Covenant (see Ex. 19-24).

4. What is the difference between the Old Testament and the Old Covenant?

5. What are the four divisions of the Old Testament?

LAW

Genesis through Deuteronomy are considered the Law books. Within these books are laws that govern the relationship between God and humanity, in relation to the Old Covenant. Notice that God works from structure to affection. God starts with the law.

GENESIS

The title means origin and is quite appropriate in that the book reveals the origin of all human history. The entire law division is thought to be written by Moses under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. Genesis starts with creation and goes on to discuss Adam, Noah, and Abraham and his descendants up to Joseph in Egypt because of the famine.

EXODUS

Seventy people went into Egypt, in Genesis, because of the famine (see Gen. 46:27), but now they have grown to over two million people (see Num. 1). The reigning Pharaoh feared overthrow and began to oppress the Hebrews; however, God brought them out, in accord with Genesis 15:13-14. Exodus is a record of the “Children of Israel” being delivered from Egyptian bondage by God and their receiving the Law and the Tabernacle of God. All of this was in spite of their many sins along the way.

LEVITICUS

This book is basically a manual for priests relating to the Tabernacle of Exodus. Great energy is given to show the need for blood (86)1 sacrificed (42) by the priests (189) for atonement (45)with a view to holiness (87). Let us be mindful that Jesus serves as our High Priest, sacrificing His own blood for our atonement. He does this, so we might stand holy before God. Leviticus shows us how meticulously holy God is and how hopelessly sinful we are. Leviticus can be summarized as the Priestly manual on the holiness of God, which demands sacrifice and sanctification.

NUMBERS

Numbers is a record of the journey from Mount Sinai to the border of the Promised Land (i.e., Canaan). Within the book, we have two censuses or numberings of the people; thus, we have the title “Numbers.” Numbers can be summarized as a record of the old generation’s wandering and dying in the wilderness. It is hard to read this book without being convinced that God judges unfaithfulness and blesses faithfulness.

DEUTERONOMY

This book is designed to review the law with the new generation in Moses’ last days (see Num.26:64-65) and before his turning things over to Joshua. Imagine how Moses felt after spending the last forty years of his life with hardheaded people. Moses buried over a million people, and now Joshua is going to take over. This book is a transition book. It reviews the law with the new generation (i.e., the old generation died because of sin) and presents Joshua as the incoming leader. It also shows the Hebrews making ready to go into the Promise Land.

Review

1. Why are the books from Genesis through Deuteronomy considered the Law books of the Old Testament?

2. Summarize the book of Genesis, in a sentence or two.

3. Summarize, in a sentence or two, the book of Exodus.

4. Summarize, in a sentence or two, the book Leviticus.

5. Summarize, in a sentence or two, the book of Numbers.

6. Summarize, in a sentence or two, the book of Deuteronomy.

1 This number and those that follow in parenthesis indicate how many times the given word appears in the book of Leviticus.

HISTORY

The books of Joshua through Esther are known as the History Books, because they focus on the history of the relationship between God and His people, in relation to the Old Covenant. For one to read the “Law Books” and “History Books” is to read basically the Old Testament. The Prophetic and Poetry books are all contemporaries of the Law and History books.

JOSHUA
The book of Joshua is a record of the conquest and division of Canaan (i.e., Promised Land)around 1400 B. C. This book is thought to be written by Joshua and picks-up where Moses left off in Deuteronomy. Joshua was a man of faith and courage who represented a covenant keeping God.

JUDGES

The book of Judges is a record of the Judge ruled period from Joshua’s death (around 1370 B.C.) to the first Hebrew King, Saul. The Judges were not as much spiritual leaders as they were civic and military leaders in nature. It is important to note that the Judges didn’t rule all twelve tribes; therefore, some of the tenures overlap. Throughout the book we see the Hebrews working through the following four-part cycle: 1) the people sin, 2) God punishes their sin, 3) the people repent, and 4) God delivers. This book shows God’s willingness to forgive sin over and over again as well as the need to forgive sin, when people walk by their own knowledge, instead of the wisdom of God.

RUTH

This book records the redemption of Ruth, the Gentile, during the time of the Judges. A kinsman’s redeemer had to have the following: 1) the willingness to redeem, 2) the ability to redeem, and 3) be a blood relative. Jesus, like Boaz, is our kinsman’s redeemer - He came to seek and to save. He has all power in His hand. And He has partaken of our blood (see Rom. 1:3;Heb. 2:14).

I AND II SAMUEL

These two books record the history from the last Judge (i.e., Samuel) to the second King (i.e.,David). These books are thought to be written by Samuel and others like perhaps Nathan and Gad. I Samuel is about Samuel leading Israel into revival and the placement of Saul as the first king. II Samuel is about the ups and downs of King David. These two books focus on the effects of sin and holiness as it relates to people and leader relationships. Blamelessness is very important. The absence of blamelessness often leads to disorder and ineffectiveness.

I AND II KINGS

These two books record the history from David’s final days to the captivity of both the Northern (i.e., Israel) and the Southern (i.e., Judah) Kingdoms. An obvious principle throughout these two books is that a wicked leader leads to judgment of the constituents, and a righteous leader contributes to a blessed constituency. In I Kings, we see Solomon building the Temple and his son Rehoboam contributing to the splitting of the Kingdom around 930 B. C. In II Kings, we see Israel fall to Assyria (722 B. C.) and Judah fall to Babylon (605 B. C.).

I AND II CHRONICLES

These two books recount the history from Adam to Judah’s fall and release. Ezra is thought to be the writer, and his purpose for recollecting the Jew’s (i.e., notice the use of the later term Jews instead of the early term Hebrews) history is to rebuild their spirituality after the Babylonian exile. In I Chronicles, we see the bloodline from Adam to David as well as highlights of David’s life. In II Chronicles, we see Solomon, the Kings of Judah, and the decree of Cyrus to rebuild the Jewish religious order. Cyrus of Persia conquered Babylon and allowed Judah to return in 539 B.C. Also notice, the need to understand our history.

EZRA

This book is thought to be written by Ezra, and it is an account of the rebuilding of the Temple around 515 B. C. A beautiful thought in this book is that God can and will chastise His people without taking His love from them (see Jer. 25:11). There is no question that God loves humanity. God’s putting up with the sins of a people fresh out of judgment shows unusual love. In just a few years, Ezra had to come and lead the Jews into revival, because they had drifted into ungodly marriages.

NEHEMIAH

Nehemiah is thought to be writer of this account of the rebuilding of the wall and social order in Judah. Notice the spiritual leads to the social. We are citizens of an earthly world awaiting heavenly residency. As Christians, we ought to be aware that God wants us to have a positive effect on the world in both spiritual and social ways.

ESTHER

This book is an account of how God delivered the Jews out of the wickedness of Haman’s hands. The events take place between chapters six and seven of Ezra, and the writer is unknown. This book, which never directly refers to God, is a vivid account of how God can work through circumstances for the good of His people. Esther, a Jewish wife of the non - Jewish King, entered the King’s chambers unannounced. This death-defying act was to plead for the safety of the Jews. The Jews were in danger because the King’s officer, Hamen, wanted to be worshipped by the Jews. Hamen ended up being killed in his own trap. God works in mysterious ways,especially when His people trust Him for their security.

Review

1. Why are the books from Joshua to Esther known as the History books of the Old Testament?

2. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Joshua.

3. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Judges.

4. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Ruth.

5. In a sentence or two, summarize the books of Samuel (i.e., first and second).

6. In a sentence or two, summarize the books of Kings (i.e., first and second).

7. In sentence or two, summarize the books of Chronicles (i.e., first and second).

8. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Ezra.

9. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Nehemiah.

10. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Esther.

11. Fill in the dates for the following events: Joshua’s death _____; splitting of the Kingdom ______; the siege of the Northern Kingdom _______; the first siege of the Southern Kingdom ______; the siege of Babylon by Persia ____; Temple rebuilt ______.

POETRY

The books from Job to Song of Solomon are known as the Poetry Books. They have been so named because of their concern with expressing the mental state of people during the time of the Old Covenant.

JOB

The book of Job is an account of one of God’s people suffering within the sovereignty of God. Some people believe Job is a pre-mosaic character and perhaps a contemporary of Abraham,because there is no mention of neither Abraham nor Moses. Some people believe this is basically a fable, in light of how remarkable the plot is. Through Job’s suffering, the empty advice of his friends, and the deliverance of God, it is clear that the world belongs to God to do with what He wants. The most favorable thing for us to do is to be faithful servants of God, instead of trying to figure Him out.

PSALMS

The book of Psalms was the Hebrews’ hymnbook. There are many writers and subject matters. David wrote about seventy-three Psalms. The book displays the reflections of the Hebrews in relation to God. We see laments (3;44)2, praise (30;65), trust in God (4), the royalty of God (47;2) and wisdom (1;37).

PROVERBS

This book is a library of wise sayings concerning how to live a Godly life. Solomon is given credit for much of the writing. Its thirty one chapters have made it popular for some to use for daily devotionals.

ECCLESTIASTES

This book is attributed to Solomon by many. It is a record of the vanity of life without God. Solomon had the ability to do many things like marrying many women, experiencing great riches, and learning many things. But he concludes that the best thing for a person to do is to fear God and keep His commandments.

SONG OF SOLOMON

Solomon wrote this record of the joys of marriage. Some have supposed this is a picture of God and the Church. Because the Church was a mystery of the Old Testament, this thinking is difficult to support (see Col. 1:24-29; Eph. 3:1-21). This book details both humanity’s enjoyment and God’s sanction of marriage and marital sex. It should be noted that according to Song of Solomon 1:5, Solomon’s wife was black.

Review

1. Why are the books from Job to Song of Solomon known as Poetry Books of the Old Testament? ________________________

2. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Job.

3. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Psalms.

4. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Proverbs.

5. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Ecclesiastics.

6. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Song of Solomon.

2 These numbers indicate examples of the given type of Psalm.

PROPHECY

The books from Isaiah to Malachi are known as the Prophecy Books. They are a record of God’s messages through His Prophets, in regard to the Old Covenant. The books are divided into minor and major prophetic books. Isaiah to Daniel are major prophecy books, and Hosea to Malachi are minor prophecy books. The major differences between minor and major is simply the size of the work. It has nothing to do with neither the credibility nor importance of the work. Judah’s exile with Babylon, in 605 B. C., is being referred to by such terms as pre-exilic and post-exilic. ISAIAH

This major prophecy book, written by Isaiah, is a denunciation of Judah’s drifting from God and the prophecy of a Messiah to get them out of trouble. This book is sometimes referred to as the Bible book, because it has thirty-nine chapters dealing with judgment, and the last twenty-seven chapters deal with consolation - just as the thirty-nine books of the Old Testament and the twenty-seven books of the New Testament. The book is pre-exilic to Judah. JEREMIAH

This major prophecy book, written by Jeremiah, is a denunciation of Judah and the surrounding nations. Jeremiah is the weeping Prophet. He was abused by way of beatings and imprisonment. The book deals with pre-exilic Judah. LAMENTATIONS

This book, written by Jeremiah, is noted as a major prophecy book more because of the major Prophet writer than the length of the work. This book is basically a collection of five poems dealing with the sorrows of Jerusalem’s chastisement. This book is often times used to commemorate the destruction of Jerusalem, by the Jews and Roman Catholics. This book deals with pre-exilic Judah/Jerusalem. EZEKIEL

Ezekiel writes this book about the fall of Judah and Jerusalem. Ezekiel spent much of his ministry in captivity. There he kept the people mindful of their judgment causing sins and God’s promise of restoration. This is a pre-exilic and exilic book in nature to Judah. DANIEL

Daniel writes this book concerning both the secular future of Gentile kingdoms and the end times. This is an exilic book for the people of Judah. Notice Daniel was a captive used as a governmental officer by his captures but yet a Prophet of God.

*NOTE* All of the major prophetic books were written to Judah, after Israel fell with her Prophets. It’s amazing to see how stiff necked the people of God can be. HOSEA

Hosea writes this book displaying how God stays with His people as a man with an adulterous wife. This book is thought to be a product of somewhere around 782 B. C. It is thought to be a pre-exilic book to Israel. It is amazing how God uses the suffering of His people for His plans. JOEL

Joel writes of God’s judgment of Judah. This pre-exilic book to Judah is known for its “Day of the Lord.” Both Babylonian judgment and the Great Tribulation are thought to be in view. It is amazing how God is thousands of years down the road in His thinking, and we are falling apart over tomorrow. AMOS Amos sought to get Israel back in line before judgment came (i.e., pre-exilic to Israel). The time was about 790 B. C. Amos was a "country preacher." His occupation was sheep breeding. God’s potential in us reaches beyond our background, if we let God use us. OBADIAH Obadiah writes to proclaim judgment against Edom. This city was inhabited by Esau’s descendants - Edomites. They were being judged because they were rejoicing in the misfortunes of the fallen Jerusalem (either 848 B. C. with the Philistines and Arabians or 586 B. C. with the Babylonians). God loves His people, and that is why He chastises them. However, He doesn’t allow His people to be totally abused without consequences. This book is most likely pre-exilic to Edom, assuming the early date of 840 B. C. JONAH Jonah is an account of Jonah being almost coerced into preaching deliverance to his enemies. The Ninevites were enemies of Israel. Nineveh was the capitol of Assyria. God is not limited by our hang-ups with one another. God says feed your enemies. The book is pre-exilic to Nineveh - 760 B. C. MICAH Micah writes to Judah to warn them of judgment and then hope. It is amazing to see how many Prophets were sent to Judah, and they still fell because of rebellion against God. The book is preexilic to Judah. NAHUM Nahum writes to foretell of the judgment of Nineveh because of their turning from God and their present conquest of Israel. God has a plan too large for us to grasp. Jonah preached deliverance, and Nahum preached judgment. We do not have to understand why God says go, but we are called to be obedient when He says go. The book is pre-exilic to Nineveh - about 612 B. C. HABAKKUK Habakkuk writes this book that details God’s justified waiting, during Judah’s sins, and His justified use of sinners to punish His people. Habakkuk didn’t understand God’s logic, but he did trust God’s wisdom. God is still in control. This book is pre-exilic to Judah (i.e., about 607 B. C.). ZEPHANIAH Zephaniah writes to warn Judah of judgment and then hope. The book is pre-exilic to Judah (i.e., about 625 B. C.). Zephaniah under Josiah (see II Chr. 34:3) experienced some revival, but the people went back to sin after Josiah’s reign. It is amazing to see how determine the people of God can be to be sin. HAGGAI Haggai was a post-exilic Prophet to Judah sent to pressure the rebuilding of the Temple, after a fifteen year delay. God is patient, but He does have a time table. Let’s not mistake tolerance for no program. The Temple was completed until four years after Haggai’s ministry. One person plants, another waters, and God gives the increase. ZECHARIAH Zechariah was a post-exilic Prophet to Judah and a contemporary of Haggai. His message was one of finishing the Temple and prophecy concerning the Messiah and the second coming. God is not limited to one messenger at a time. There is a ministry for all of God’s people. MALACHI Malachi was a post-exilic Prophet to Judah around 400 B. C. The Temple was completed in 515 B. C. Malachi was to challenge the Jews to get back on path. They were drifting from the righteousness of God. The honeymoon was over (i.e., building the Temple), and they were beginning the terrible cycle of sin and judgment again. *NOTE* As we close this study of the Old Testament, we see the people of God didn’t respond to the Old Covenant too well. There was a desperate need for some help, because the Jews were not keeping the Covenant, and the Gentiles (i.e., us) were not even in the picture. Review 1. Why are the books from Isaiah to Malachi known as the Prophetic Books? ______ 2. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Isaiah. ____________ 3. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Jeremiah. ____________ 4. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Lamentations. ___________ 5. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Ezekiel. ____________ 6. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Daniel. ____________ 7. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Hosea. ____________ 8. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Joel. ____________ 9. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Amos. ____________ 10. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Obadiah. ____________ 11. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Jonah. ____________ 12. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Micah. ____________ 13. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Nahum. ____________ 14. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Habakkuk. ________________________ 15. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Zephaniah. __________________ 16. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Haggai. ____________ 17. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Zechariah. ____________ 18. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Malachi. ____________ 19. There are major prophetic books, __ to Judah, books to Israel and post exilic books. 20. Which exile is being referred to, by such terms as pre- and post-exilic (i.e., in this study)? ______________________________________________________________________________ NEW TESTAMENT The New Covenant basically says, “accept the righteousness of Jesus and be blessed by God (see Mt. 26:28; Heb. 11:6).” This covenant was ratified by Jesus’ blood (see Lk. 22:19-20). Notice the Old Covenant said “Hebrews live up to the law and be blessed by God.” It was ratified by animal blood. God is obviously concerned with humanity, as seen in His giving them a second and broader chance. The tragedy is that some believe and some do not. The New Testament is a record of God’s dealing with people in relation to the “New Covenant.” The New Testament has four book groupings - Gospels, Acts, Epistles, and Revelation. It is interesting to note that the Old Testament covers over 1,500 years with many writers. The Intertestamental period covers about 400 years with no writers. The New Testament covers about 100 years with about nine writers. Review 1. What is the New Covenant? 2. What kind of blood was used to ratify the New Covenant? 3. What are the four book groupings of the New Testament? ______ 4. About how much history is covered in the New Testament? GOSPELS The Gospels are the records of the “Good News” that Jesus has provided a means of salvation to those who would believe on His death and resurrection for their sins. That is, the gospels show us how the New Covenant was placed before us. There are four Gospel writers. Matthew writes to the Jews. Mark writes to the Romans. Luke writes to the Gentiles. And John writes to the Christians. Matthew, Mark, and Luke are known as the synoptic writers because they narrate the life of Christ, as individuals concerned with the same event. John (i.e., the theologian) does not seek to necessarily narrate the life of Christ, as much as he seeks to prove the deity of Christ. MATTHEW Matthew, as fore stated, is a record of Jesus’ life originally intended for a Jewish audience. The Jews were looking for a messiah, a deliverer, a restorer. They saw him as a conquering and aggressive king. The Church Age was a mystery to the Jews. They had no idea that there was any such thing as the Church, as Gentiles being saved, or a dispensation of grace. The Jewish mind looked for what we consider the Millennium (see “Future Things” in this workbook). They saw it as immediately following their release from bondage in the Old Testament. So Matthew’s ministry was to give evidence that Christ was indeed the Messiah and that hope is not lost, but it simply follows God’s mysterious “Church Age.” MARK Mark wrote to the Romans. Because the Romans could really care less about the Old Testament and were a rather action oriented group, Mark narrates the action of Jesus’ life. This Gospel, which has less chapters than the rest, is almost like reading a thriller. There is almost constant action. Perhaps a lesson to be learned is that unchurched people are not as persuaded by talk and scriptures that they are not familiar with as they are with our living by what we are saying. LUKE Luke writes to Gentiles in general. Luke admits that the process of scriptural inspiration for him included researching records and interviewing people as a means of collecting data to write this gospel. Luke does an unusual job of detailing the humanity of Christ. Luke, who was a doctor, highlights God’s use of ordinary people like Zachaeus (19:1-10), the penitent thief (23:39-43), the prodigal son (15:11-32), the penitent publican (18:9-14), the good Samaritan (10:29-37), and the thankful ex-leper (17:11-19). A great lesson from Luke is God knows us and still wants to bless and use us. JOHN John writes to Christians. John wants to make sure that Jesus is understood to be more than simply a very righteous man but that Jesus was and is also divine. The book doesn’t spend much time rehearsing what others have already said. This book wants to make sure we make a decision about our believing or not believing that Jesus is our only way to God. We are challenged by John to make sure we know more than the story but also that we have internalized the message. Review 1. Why are the books from Matthew to John know as the Gospels, and what do they have to do with the New Covenant? _____________________________________________________________ 2. Why are Matthew, Mark, and Luke referred to as the synoptic writers and John is considered the theologian? _________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Matthew. 4. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Mark. 5. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Luke. 6. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of John. ACTS The book of Acts, written by Luke, is an account of the approximately thirty years after Jesus’ resurrection. It records the spread of Christianity and the news of the New Covenant through the ministries of the Apostles. Acts is a reference to the “Acts” or actions of the apostles. The three major sections of the book are as follows: I. Christianity in Jerusalem (1:1-8:3). Here we see the day of Pentecost and the early persecution of the Church. II. Christianity in Palestine and Syria (8:4-12:25). Here we see Paul converted, Gentiles being saved, and more persecution of the Church. III. Christianity to the uttermost part of the world (13:1-28:31). Here we see the three missionary journeys of Paul and the persecution he suffered for the Word’s sake. The key verse of the book is Acts 1:8. We would do well to understand that as Christianity spreads, so does persecution. Review 1. Why is "Acts" named Acts, and what does it have to do with the New Covenant? ____________ 2. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Acts. 3. Was persecution a great factor in the spread of Christianity? Yes or No EPISTLES The books from Romans to Jude are known as the Epistles, because they are letters to various individuals and groups. The Epistles teach believers how to live in relation to the New Covenant. All of the epistles were written within the first one hundred years after the resurrection of Christ. ROMANS Paul writes this letter to the church at Rome. This letter was intended to be an introduction of Paul to the church at Rome, but God saw fit to have Paul elsewhere. This is perhaps the most sophisticated work of theology in the Bible. The book has the following five major ideas: sin, salvation, sanctification, sovereignty, and service. I AND II CORINTHIANS These two epistles, written by Paul, were to the church at Corinth. The record is that all that was sinful was going on in Corinth, and the church was problem filled and immature in Christian growth. The first letter addresses the problems of the church such as division, moral disorders, misconceptions of marriage, food offered to idols, public worship, and resurrection. The second epistle was basically designed to encourage the Christians’ repentance, to reinforce Paul’s apostolic (i.e., pertaining to an apostle) ministry, and to encourage the practice of giving money for the sake of others. GALATIANS This Pauline (i.e., written by Pau) epistle was written to the Galatian Christians. This whole epistle is designed to persuade the notion that we are justified by faith alone. Works are a manifestation of faith. It is interesting to see that Paul has to argue and demand his respect. Perhaps the suggestion is that we need to be bold in the Word of God, as well as loving. EPHESIANS This Pauline epistle was written, while Paul was in the Roman prison; thus, it is also known as a prison epistle. The major thrust of the book is to persuade the notion that God is working through believers to complete His glorious Church, and we are to be submissive to His will. PHILIPPIANS This Pauline prison epistle is written to the Christians at Philippi. The major thought of the book is to say, “Thank You,” for the gifts the Philippians had supplied Paul. Paul focuses on humility, knowledge, and the peace of God. COLOSSIANS This Pauline prison epistle is to the church at Colossae. This letter is basically to persuade the notion of the supremacy and all sufficiency of Christ, above the law, philosophy, and the like. I AND II THESSALONIANS These Pauline epistles are to the Christians at Thessalonica. The first book is to insure the church is still growing and to address some of their concerns about development, death, judgment, and their duties. The second epistle was to address the coming judgment. They thought it was over; Paul taught it has not even started. I AND II TIMOTHY These two epistles and Titus are known as the Pastoral Epistles because they are to Pastors about pastoring. This first letter is about doctrine, worship, leadership, and duties. The second letter is basically a letter of encouragement to Timothy, as Paul understands his death is near. Paul tells Timothy to be a good soldier of Christ. TITUS This Pauline pastoral epistle is to Titus. This three chapter book discusses the leadership, offenders, and operations of the church. It’s amazing to see how comprehensive this small book is. It covers enough material to run a local church for years. PHILEMON This Pauline prison epistle is to a slave owner named Philemon. The basic idea of this book is for Philemon to accept Onesimus as a Christian brother, and Paul would repay any outstanding expenses. Onesimus was a runaway slave that was lead to Christ by Paul. This book doesn’t address the issue of slavery, as much as it deals with reconciliation and imputation. HEBREWS The writer of this book is unknown as well as its readership. The book, however, is an apologetic (i.e., defensive) discussion of the supremacy of Christ. This book wonderfully ties the Old Testament to the New Testament in the marvelous person, priesthood, and power of Jesus Christ. JAMES This letter alone with I and II Peter; I, II, and III John, and Jude are known as the general epistles because of their general nature in readership. James, the half brother of Jesus, is given credit for writing this epistle. This epistle doesn’t spend much time on formal theology. It generally concerns itself with practical Christianity. Perhaps the greatest thought is to be a doer of the Word. I AND II PETER These two general epistles are attributed to Peter the Apostle. The first letter is to let the Christians know that the grace of God means not only our security, but sobriety, submission, suffering, and service. The second letter teaches us to develop our faith, denounce false teachers, and be aware of future events. I, II, AND III JOHN These three general epistles are attributed to John the Apostle. The first epistle is concerned with genuine fellowship among Christians. This epistle teaches that as we live in the light of Christ, we will share genuine and rewarding fellowship with one another. The second epistle is concerned with walking in truth, loving one another, and staying away from false teachers. The third letter is concerned with giving to support the promotion of Christianity. JUDE This general epistle is thought to be written by Jude, the half brother of Jesus. This epistle has two major ideas - stay away from false teachers and stay in the Word of God. It’s amazing to see how much attention is given to keeping false teachers in check. There is a battle for our minds. Review 1. Why are the books from Romans to Jude known as the epistles, and how do they relate to the New Covenant? 2. How many Pauline epistles are there? How many prison epistles are there? _____ How many Pastoral Epistles are there? 3. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Romans. 4. In a sentence or two, summarize the books of I and II Corinthians. 5. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Galatians. 6. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Ephesians. 7. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Philippians. 8. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Colossians. ______________________________________________________ 9. In a sentence or two, summarize the books of I and II Thessalonians. 10. In a sentence or two, summarize the books of I and II Timothy. 11. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Titus. 12. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Philemon. 13. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Hebrews. 14. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of James. 15. In a sentence or two, summarize the books of I and II Peter. 16. In a sentence or two, summarize the books of I, II, and III John. 17. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Jude. REVELATION This book is thought by many to be a prophetic writing of John. Using the prophetic interpretation, this book relates to the New Covenant, by showing how God’s people will eventually be in a state of eternal blessedness with God. The major outline of the book is as follows: I. “The prologue and the things which thou hast seen.” John has seen a vision of the risen Lord. II. “The things which are.” These are the letters to the seven churches. III. “The things which shall be hereafter” and the epilogue. The Tribulation, Millennium, and the eternal state are discussed. The book closes with the warning not to tamper with the Word. This book is comforting for the Christians, and it ought to scare the non-Christians so much that they get saved. Review 1. Why is “Revelation” named Revelation and how does it relate to the New Covenant. ____________ 2. In a sentence or two, summarize the book of Revelation. DOCTRINE Christians need to know their teachings or doctrines. That is, they need to know what they are to believe and the basis for such. The following is an overview of basic Christian doctrines with scriptural support (see I Pet. 3:15; Eph. 5:10; II Tim. 3:16). BIBLE I. Introduction. Some facts about the Bible include that it took 1,500 years to form; forty writers contributed to the book; it has been preserved; its subject matter is comprehensive; and its influence is global. Some attitudes towards the Bible include rationalism (i.e., there is no supernatural revelation and definitely not an authoritative one), romanism (i.e., the Bible is the product of the Church and therefore is not the final authority), mysticism (i.e., experience along with the Bible is authoritative), neo-orthodoxy (i.e., the Bible is a fallible witness to the revelation of God in Christ), cults (i.e., the Bible and their religious book[s] are equally authoritative), and orthodoxy (i.e., the Bible is the authoritative revelation). II. Revelation. The term means a disclosure, especially God’s communicating His message to people. God reveals Himself and His will towards us through nature (see Rom. 1:18-21; Ps. 19), through providential dealings (see Rom. 8:28), through miracles (see I Jn. 2:11), through Christ (see Jn. 1:14), and through the Bible (see I Jn. 5:9-12). III. Inspiration. It is the process by which God allowed the recording of His revelation to humanity. The following are some of the many theories concerning inspiration: natural (i.e., the Bible was written by people of great genius not supernatural elements), dictation or mechanical (i.e., people were passive instruments of God), conceptual (i.e., concepts not words were inspired by God), verbal, plenary (i.e., the words [verbal] every word [plenary] was inspired by God), and fallible inspiration (i.e., the Bible is inspired but not without error). Many conservative Christians take the verbal, plenary position. It concerns the original manuscripts, it extends to the actual words, it views God as superintending not dictating, and it includes inerrancy (see II Tim. 3:16; II Pet. 1:21; Mt. 5:17; Jn. 17:3; Mt. 22:31-32). IV. Canonicity. God guided the church councils to recognize the authority inherent in the books themselves. Some assert the Old Testament books were collected and recognized by Ezra by the 5th century B. C. Using apostolic authority, content, and evidence of inspiration, the New Testament was collected and recognized by 397 A. D. V. Illumination. The term means to lighten up. In relation to the unsaved, the Holy Spirit convicts them (see Jn. 16:7-11; I Cor. 2:14; II Cor. 4:4). In relation to the saved, the Holy Spirit teaches us the glorification of Jesus (see Jn. 16:13-15; I Cor. 2:10-12, 3:2). VI. Interpretation. All of the following should be remembered in interpreting the Scripture: grammar, history, immediate context, wider context, and a harmony with the rest of the Bible based on Scriptural comparisons. Review 1. Describe the orthodox attitude towards the Bible. _____________ ______ 2. What does revelation mean, and what scripture supports the Bible being a revelation from God? ______ 3. What is inspiration, and what are two conservative beliefs in this regard? ______ _______ 4. What should we fundamentally understand about canonicity? ____ 5. Is it true, the unsaved are blind to the Word, and the saved need to grow in the Word? 6. Is it true that when interpreting Scripture, one is supposed to simply read the verse and let the Holy Spirit interpret it? GOD THE FATHER I. The Existence of God. The Cosmological notion sees the universe as an effect that requires God as the cause (see Ps. 19:1). The Teleological notion sees the universe shows purpose, and, therefore, it has God as its designer (see Rom. 1:18-20). The Anthropological notion sees the moral nature, religious instincts, conscience, and emotional nature of humanity arguing for the existence of God (see Acts 17:29). The Bible assumes and argues the existence of God. II. The Attributes of God. God has incommunicable attributes such as infinity (i.e., without termination; see I Kg. 8:27; Acts 17:24), eternity (i.e., free from succession of time; see Gen. 21:33; Ps. 90:2), immutability (i.e., unchanging and unchangeable; see Jam. 1:17), sovereignty (i.e., supreme ruler; see Eph. 1), omniscience (i.e., God knows everything; see Mt. 11:21), omnipotence (i.e., all powerful; se Rev. 19:6); and omnipresence (i.e., God is everywhere; see Ps. 139:7-12). God also has communicable attributes such as justice (i.e., no respect of person; see Acts 17:31), love (i.e., God seeking the highest good of displaying His own will; see Eph. 2:4-5), truth (i.e., agreement to and consistency with all that is represented by God Himself; see Jn. 14:6), freedom (i.e., independence from His creatures; see Isa. 40:13-14), and holiness (i.e., righteous; see I Jn. 1:5). III. The Names of God. God is called Jehovah (see Ex. 3:14; the self existent one; hates sin loves the sinner), Elohim (see Isa. 6:8; the strong one), El Shaddai (see Gen. 17:1-20; almighty God), and Jehovah Jireh (see Gen. 22:13-14; the Lord will provide), in the Bible. IV. The Decree of God. It is God’s eternal purpose, whereby, for His eternal purpose and for His own glory, He hath fore-ordained whatsoever comes to pass. Some key terms in this neighborhood of thought are omniscience (i.e., knowledge of all), foreknowledge (i.e., prior knowledge of all), predestination (i.e., the predetermining of the elect’s destiny), retribution (i.e., deserved punishment), election (i.e., God’s choosing a people for Himself), and preterition (i.e., passing by the non-elect). Notice the following objections and defenses: 1. It is inconsistent with human freedom. (All means such as prayer and witnessing are part of His plan.) 2. God becomes the author of sin. (God has included it in His plan but is not responsible for the committing of sin.) 3. It is the same as fatalism. (Fatalism emphasizes only the ends, and makes chance, not God, the governing power.) V. The Trinity. There is only one God with three eternal and co-equal persons. They are same in substance but distinct in subsistence. Proofs include Elohim is plural and allows for it (see Gen. 1:1, 26; Isa. 6:8). We see the Angel of Jehovah (see Gen. 22:11, 15-16). And the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are all God (see Jn. 6:27; Heb. 1:8; Acts 5:3-4), and all three associate equally and as one (see Mt. 28:19; II Cor. 13:14). VI. The Father. God is the father of creation, Israel, Jesus Christ, and believers. God is the author of the decree and election. He beget and sent Christ. And He disciplines His children, as the Father. Review 1. List three of God’s incommunicable attributes and three of His communicable attributes. 2. What is the Decree of God (and discuss how we deal with one of the objections to it)? 3. Describe the “Trinity” to include one proof text. ______________________________________________________ 4. What are four things the Father has done or is doing? JESUS CHRIST I. His Pre-existence and Incarnation. The Old and New Testament show the pre-existence of Jesus (see Mic. 5:2; Isa. 9:2; Jn. 1:1,14; Col. 1:16). The infleshment of Jesus came by the virgin birth, as predicted in Isaiah 7:14 and proved in Matthew 1:16 (i.e., undiminished deity and perfect humanity in one person). Jesus was incarnated to reveal God to humanity (see Jn. 1:18); to provide a sacrifice for sin (see Heb. 10:1-10), to destroy the works of the devil (see I Jn. 3:8), to be a merciful high priest (see Phil. 2:9), to fulfill the Davidic Covenant (see Lk. 1:31-33), and to be highly exalted (see Phil. 2:9). II. His Humanity. Jesus’ humanity is demonstrated by His being born of a woman (see Gal. 4:4). He had a human soul and spirit (see Mt. 26:38; Lk. 23:46). He was subject to growth (see Lk. 2:52). He was handled by people (see I Jn. 1:1; Mt. 26:12). He had human limitations such as hunger (see Mt. 4:2), thirst (see Jn. 19:28), tiredness (see Jn. 4:6), and He was able to die. III. His Deity. Jesus’ deity is supported by His name - God (see Heb. 1:8), Son of God (see Mt. 16:16, 26: 61-64a), Lord (see Mt. 22:43-45), and King of kings and Lord of lords (see Rev. 19:16). It is supported by His characteristics - omnipotence (see Mt. 28:18), omniscience (see Jn. 1:48), omnipresence (see Mt. 18:20), truth (see Jn. 14:6), and immutability (see Heb. 13:8). It is supported by His works - He creates (see Jn. 1:3), sustains (see Col. 1:17), forgives sin (see Lk. 7:48), raises the dead (see Jn. 5:25), judges (see Jn. 5:27), and sends the Holy Spirit (see Jn. 15:26). It is supported by the worship given unto Him by angels (see Heb. 1:6), people (see Mt. 14:33), and all (see Phil. 13:14) IV. His Earthly Life. Jesus began His public ministry at abut thirty years old. He preached, taught, performed miracles, died for our sins, and rose for our hope. While Christ was performing His earthly ministry, He made Himself of no reputation (see Phil. 2:7). This doctrine is known as kenosis (i.e., literally emptying). Note Christ did not give up His deity; He simply suppressed His deity. To give up His deity would have been to cease being God. Christ was also impeccable, that is, not able to sin. Note the difference between “not able to” and “able not to.” Some have argued that if Christ was not able to sin then He was not tested and cannot be a sympathizing High Priest. However, testing doesn’t rest upon ones moral nature, nor is sympathizing contingent upon ones correspondence in the problem. V. His Death. Jesus’ death was noted in the Old Testament (see Lk. 24:27, 44) and throughout the New Testament. His death is pictured as a ransom for sin (see Mt. 20:28; I Tim. 2:6), a reconciliation so that people might be saved (see II Cor. 5:18-19), a propitiation that satisfies God (see I Jn. 2:2), a substitute for our sin (see II Cor. 5:21), and a proof of God’s love for humanity (see Rom. 5:8). Jesus’ death was not simply to set an example for us. It was not to simply show God’s displeasure with sin. It was not simply an expression of love with no substitution (i.e., Neo-orthodox). Nor was it a ransom to Satan. VI. His Resurrection. Jesus’ resurrection has the following facts: the empty tomb, His appearances (see Jn. 20:11-17; Mt. 28:9-10; I Cor. 15:5; Lk. 24:13-43; Jn. 20:26-29, 21:1-23; I Cor. 15:6; Mt. 28:16-20), the existence of the Church, the changed disciples, the day of Pentecost, and the changed day of worship. Jesus’ body was real (see Jn. 20:20) and identifiable (see Jn. 20:25-29). His resurrection proves His deity (see Rom. 1:4) and confirms the truth of His message (see Mt. 28:6). It makes certain all will be resurrected (see I Cor. 15:20-22) and that judgment is coming (see Acts 17:31). It assures believers of their acceptance with God (see Rom. 4:25), the power for service (see Eph. 1:19-22), and it means a sympathetic High Priest (see Heb. 4:14-16). VII. His Ascension. It meant Christ’s end of a period of limitation. It also meant His exaltation (see Eph. 1:20-23), His preparing a place for His people (see Jn. 14:2), His headship of the Church (see Col. 1:18), His being a High Priest (see Heb. 4:14-16), and His being a forerunner (see Heb. 6:20). VIII. His Present Ministry. Jesus is mediating for the believers as the last Adam for the new creation (see I Cor. 15:45; II Cor. 5:17 - to give life), head for body of Christ (see Col. 1:18, 24 - direction, nurturing, and gifts), shepherd for sheep (see Jn. 10 - leading and caring), vine for branches (see Jn. 15 - fruit), chief cornerstone for stones of the building (see I Cor. 3:11; I Pet. 2:4-8 - life and security), High Priest for royal priesthood (see I Pet. 2:5-9 – sacrifice and intercession), and bridegroom for bride (see Eph. 5:25-27 - preparedness). IX. His Return. See “Future Things.” Review 1. List one Old Testament and one New Testament scripture that supports the pre-existence of Jesus. 2. What does incarnation mean? 3. List three reasons for Jesus’ incarnation. 4. List three proofs of Jesus’ humanity. 5. List three proofs of Jesus’ deity. 6. Is it true that Jesus gave up His deity, while He lived among us (see Phil. 2:7)? 7. Jesus was tested. Does that mean He was able to sin? 8. List one true and one false picture of Jesus’ death. 9. Does Jesus’ resurrection confirm the truth of His message (see Mt. 28:6)? 10. Right now Jesus is not mediating for us. That phase of His ministry is over. True or False THE HOLY SPIRIT I. The Personality of the Spirit. His personality is proved by the characteristics assigned to Him such as intelligence (see I Cor. 2:10 - 11), feelings (see Eph. 4:30), and will (see I Cor. 12:11). It is proved by His works like teaching (see Jn. 14:26), guiding (see Rom. 8:14), restraining (see Gen. 6:3), and interceding (see Rom. 8:26). It is proved by what is ascribed to Him like He can be obeyed (see Acts 10:19-21), lied to (see Acts 5:3), resisted (see Acts 7:51), blasphemed against (see Mt. 12:31), and grieved (see Eph. 4:30). II. The Deity of the Spirit. His deity is proved by His name being equally associated with the other names of the Trinity (see I Cor. 6:11) and names indicating godly works (see Rom. 8:15; Jn. 14:6). It is proved by His characteristics/divine attributes like omniscience (see I Cor. 2:10- 11), omnipresence (see Ps. 139:7), omnipotence (see Gen. 1:2), truth (see I Jn. 5:6), holiness (see Lk. 11:13), life (see Rom. 8:2), and wisdom (see Isa. 40:13). It is proved by His godly works like creation (see Gen. 1:2), inspiring (II Pet. 1:21), begetting Christ (see Lk. 1:35), convincing people (see Jn. 16:8), regeneration (see Jn. 3:5-6), comforting (see Jn. 14:16), interceding (see Rom. 8:26-27), and sanctifying (see II Thes. 2:13). It is proved by His equal association in the Trinity (see Acts 5:3-4; Mt. 28:19-20; II Cor. 14:14). III. Pictures of the Spirit. The following are pictures or representations of the Spirit in the Bible: dove (see Mt. 3:16; Mk. 1:10; Lk. 3:22; Jn. 1:32), earnest (see II Cor. 1:22, 5:5, Eph. 1:14), fire (see Acts 2:3), oil (see Lk. 4:18, Acts 10:38, II Cor. 1:21, I Jn. 2:20), seal (see II Col. 1:22, Eph. 1:13, 4:30), servant (see Gen. 24), water (see Jn. 4:14, 7:38-39), and wind (see Jn. 3:8, Acts 2:1-2). IV. The Work of the Spirit in the Old Testament. In creation, the Spirit gave creation life (see Ps. 104:30, Job 33:4), order (see Isa. 40:12; Job 26:13), adornment (see Ps. 33:6; Job 26:13), and preservation (see Ps. 104:30). With humanity, the Spirit worked in (see Gen. 41:38, Num. 27:18, Dan. 4:8), upon (see Jg. 3:10, I Sam. 10:9-10), and filled (see Ex. 31:3, 35:31) some people, in the Old Testament, but rather selectively and not necessarily permanently (see Ps. 51:11). The Spirit enabled for service (see Ex. 31:3; Jg. 14:6) and generally restrained sin (see Gen. 6:3). V. The Work of the Spirit in Revelation and Inspiration. The Holy Spirit authored the revelation (i.e., disclosure of the previously unknown - II Pet. 1:21, II Sam. 23:2, Ezek. 2:2, Mt. 22:43, Acts 1:16) through encounters (see Ex. 19:9), dreams (see Gen. 20:31), visions (see Isa. 6:1), written word (see Jn. 14:26, I Cor. 2:13), and Christ. The Holy Spirit authored inspiration (i.e., the written record of the revelation) of the Old Testament (see II Sam. 23:2-3; II Tim. 3:16, Mk. 12:36) and the New Testament (see Jn. 14:26, I Cor. 14:37, II Pet. 3:16). VI. The Holy Spirit was working in the life of Christ. He caused the virgin conception (see Lk. 1:35). He anointed (see Lk. 4:18; Acts 10:38), filled (see Lk. 4:1), sealed (see Jn. 6:27), led (see Lk. 4:1), and empowered Jesus (see Mt. 12:28). He was a part of Jesus’ death (see Heb. 9:14) and His resurrection (see I Pet. 3:18). VII. The Holy Spirit Works in Salvation. The Spirit convicts (i.e., the placing of the truth clearly before the unsaved for them to receive Christ as their savior or not). He convicts of sin, righteousness, and judgment (see Jn. 16:8-11). The Spirit regenerates (i.e., the act of being born of God which impacts eternal life). It is an act of God the Spirit that requires faith in God’s Word by a person (see Jn. 3:3-7; Tit. 3:5). Regeneration is instantaneous, not based on experience and results in a new nature (see II Cor. 5:17) and a new life (see I Jn. 2:29). The Spirit indwells all the believers permanently. The difference between indwelt and being filled will be discussed later. Obedience to the faith is a condition for indwelling (see Acts 5:32, 6:7; Rom. 1:5). Temporary indwelling was pre- Pentecostal (see I Sam. 16:14; i.e., before the day of Pentecost in Acts). To be indwelt is to have the presence of God in your life. To have the anointing is the enablement to be taught (see I Jn. 2:20, 27). The Spirit baptizes (i.e., this is the placing of believers into the body of Christ; see I Cor. 12:13) and unites them with Jesus’ death (Rom. 6:1-10). It happens once to each believer in the Church Age (see Eph. 4:5; Acts 1:5). The Spirit seals. God the Father seals each believer with the Holy Spirit at the time of conversion to guarantee our preservation until the day of redemption (see II Cor. 1:22; Eph. 1:13, 4:30). VIII. The Gifts of the Spirit. A spiritual gift is a God given ability for service. Some gifts are listed in Romans 12:6-8; I Corinthians 12:8-10, 28-30; and Ephesians 4:11. Some gifts were for certain times (see Eph. 2:20; Heb. 2:3-4), but all believers have at least one gift (see I Pet. 4:10; I Cor. 12:11). The gift can and must be developed. For example, the gift of teaching must be developed by studying. IX. The Filling of the Spirit. To be filled with the Spirit is to be controlled by the Spirit (see Eph. 5:18). It is a repeatable act of the will (see Acts 2:4; Eph. 5:18) that makes us more like Christ (see Gal. 5:22-23). It requires both an initial (see Rom. 12:1-2) and a continual (see Rom. 8:14) dedication of one’s life - a life that is responsive to the light of God’s Word (se Eph. 4:30; I Jn. 1:7; Gal. 5:16). To be filled results in Christ like character (see Gal. 5:22-23), worship and praise (see Eph. 5:18-20), submission (see Eph. 5:21), and service (see Jn. 7:37-39). X. Other Ministries of the Spirit. The Spirit is involved in teaching (see Jn. 16:12-15), guiding (see Rom. 8:14), assuring (see Rom. 8:16), and praying (see Rom. 8:26; Eph. 6:18). XI. The Work of the Spirit in the Future. In the Tribulation, the Spirit will be involved with salvation and filling (see Zech. 12:10; Joel 2:28-32). In the Kingdom, the Spirit will be upon the king (see Isa. 11:2-3) and in God’s people (see Jer. 31:33). Review 1. List one scriptural support for the Spirit’s personality and one for His Deity. 2. What two areas were the Spirit involved in, during the Old Testament? 3. What two areas were the Spirit involved in, in relation to the Bible? 4. What five areas were the Spirit involved in, in relation to salvation? 5. What is a spiritual gift, and what scripture supports the idea that every believer having at least one? _________________________________________________________________________ 6. According to Ephesians 5:18, what does being filled with the Spirit mean? 7. Give one scriptural support that the Spirit will be working in the Tribulation. HUMANITY I. The Origin of Humanity. Atheistic evolution says humans evolved from spontaneous generation. Theistic evolution sees a divine power involved in the initial cause and the guiding force in evolution. The Bible is authoritative truth, and it treats creation as a historical fact (see Ex. 20; Ps. 8; Heb. 4). II. The Material Part of Humans (Body). The human body was created of the dust and breathed into by God for life (see Gen. 2:7; 3:19). The body is to be raised from the dead (see Jn. 5:28-29). The redeemed will go to heaven, and the unredeemed will go to an eternal existence, in the lake of fire (see Rev. 20:12, 15). III. The Immaterial Part of Humanity (Soul and Spirit). The material and immaterial parts of humanity were originated in Genesis 2:7. Adam was a partaker of creaturely holiness but lost it in the fall. Humanity has remains of God’s image and likeness but in a marred condition (see I Cor. 11:7; Jam. 3:9). The transmission of the immaterial part of humanity is not clear. Preexistent theory says, “Souls become confined to bodies.” Creationism says, “The soul is created by God at birth. Traducianism says, “The soul is transmitted by natural generation, just as the body is.” There are a number of facets to the immaterial part of humanity like the soul. This is the personal life or the individual. It has emotion (see Jer. 31:25) and wars against the lusts of the flesh (see I Pet. 2:11). There is the spirit. This is a higher aspect of a person (see Rom. 8:16; I Cor. 2:11) that may be corrupted (see II Cor. 7:1). There is the heart. This is the seat of intellect, emotion, will, and spiritual living (see Heb. 4:12; Mt. 22:37; Heb. 4:7). There is the conscience. It is a witness within that can be used as a safe guide some times (see I Pet. 2:19; Heb. 10:22). There is the mind. It is the place where understanding is centered; it can be renewed in Christ (see Rom. 12:2). There is the flesh. Sometimes it refers to the unrenewable sin nature of a person. IV. The Fall of Humanity (see Gen. 3). Genesis chapter three is to be taken literally, as a test of humanity’s obedience to the revealed will of God. The test was failed in the following four areas: Satan persuaded Eve to doubt the goodness of God’s prohibiting the use of the tree; Satan persuade Eve to accept his substitute plan of eating from the tree; Satan persuaded Eve to justify her sin; and Adam willfully followed Eve into the act of sin. Adam, Eve, the serpent, Satan, and humankind were penalized because of the fall of humanity. Review 1. Why is creation to be accepted over evolution? 2. List a scripture to support the material part and a scripture to support the immaterial part of humanity. 3. What four areas did humanity fall in that resulted in humanity being in so much trouble? ANGELS, SATAN, AND DEMONS ANGELS Angels are innumerable (see Heb. 12:22) spiritual beings (see Heb. 1:14; Ps. 8:4-5) that were created (see Col. 1:16), before the world (see Job 38:6-7), in a state of holiness (see Jude 6). They have personalities (i.e., intellect, see I Pet. 1:12; emotion, see Lk. 2:13; and will, see Jude 6). They cannot reproduce (see Mk. 12:25), nor do they die (see Lk. 20:36). They have great power (see II Pet. 2:11). There is the Archangel (i.e., Michael, see Jude 9), chief princes (see Dan. 10:13), ruling angels (see Eph. 3:10), guarding angels (see Heb. 1:14; Mt. 18:10), seraphim’s (see Isa. 6:1-3), cherubim (see Gen. 3:22-24), and elect angels (see I Tim. 5:21). Angels ministered to Christ, when they were around His birth (see Lk. 1:26-33; 2:13; Mt. 2:13), temptation (see Mt. 4:11), defense (see Mt. 26:53), death, and resurrection (see Lk. 22:43; Mt. 28:2, 6). Angels minster to believers, in that they have a general ministry of aiding (see Heb. 1:14), observing Christians (see I Cor. 4:9; I Tim. 5:21), encouragement (see Acts 27:23-24), evangelism (see Lk. 15:10; Acts 8:26), and death (see Lk. 16:22; Jude 9). Angels minister to nations, in that Michael seems to be involved with Israel (see Dan. 12:1). Angels are involved in the execution of God’s providence (see Dan. 10:21) and judgment in the tribulation (Rev. 8, 9, 16). Angels minister to unbelievers, in that they are involved in judgment, punishment, and separation in the end of times (see Gen. 19:13; Rev. 14:6-7; Acts 12:23; Mt. 13:39). SATAN Satan was the highest angelic creature (see Ezek. 28:11-19, 12), but he fell because of pride (see Isa. 14:12-20; I Tim. 3:6) and will suffer in the lake of fire for eternity (see Rev. 20:10). Satan has many names like Devil, Lucifer, and Beelzerbub. He has titles like evil one (see I Jn. 5:19), tempter (see I Thess. 3:5), accuser of the brethren (see Rev. 12:10). And he is represented as a serpent (see Rev. 12:9), dragon (see Rev. 12:3), and angel of light (see II Cor 11:14). He is a murderer (see Jn. 8:44), sinner (see I Jn. 3:8), accuser (see Rev. 12:10), and adversary (see I Pet. 5:8). He is, however, limited by God (see Job 1:12) and resistible by Christians (see Jam. 4:7). In relation to redemption, he sought to stay the payment (see Gen. 3:15; Mt. 4:1-11, 2:16; Jn. 8:44; Mt. 16:23; Jn. 13:37). In relation to nations, he deceives them and will gather them for the battle of Armageddon (see Rev. 20:3, 16:13-14). In relation to unbelievers, he blinds their minds (see II Cor. 4:4), snatches the Word from their heart (see Lk. 8:12), and use people to oppose God’s work (see Rev. 2:13). In relation to believers, he tempts them to lie (see Acts 5:3), accuses and slanders (see Rev. 12:10), hinders good works (see I Thess. 2:18), seeks to destroy believers (see Eph. 6:11-12), tempts believers to act immorally (see I Cor. 7:5), sows tares among believers (see Mt. 13:38-39), and incites persecution of believers (see Rev. 2:10). Christian’s are not to attack Satan (see Jude 8-9), but they are to stand against him (see Jm. 4:7), guard against him (see I Pet 5:8), have their armor on (see Eph. 6:11-18), and trust the intercessory ministry of Christ (see Jn. 17:15) and the providence of God (see II Cor. 12:7; Rom. 8:28). That is, Christians are to live as close to God’s will as possible. DEMONS Demons are thought to be fallen angels like Satan (see Mt. 12:24; Eph. 6:11-12). Some have already been confined (see II Pet. 2:4; Jude 6). They may have been confined because of the intercourse of Genesis 6:1-4. They are aware of Jesus and salvation (see Mk. 1:24; Jam. 2:19), but they choose their own doctrine (see I Tim. 4:1-3), doom (see Mt. 8:29), and immoral conduct (see I Tim. 4:1-2). Demons are out to help Satan hinder God’s program (see Eph. 6:11-12; Dan. 10:10-14; Rev. 16:13-16). They can possess people (see Mt. 4:24) and animals (see Mt. 5:13). They can oppose spiritual growth (see Eph. 6:12), disseminate false doctrine (see I Tim. 4:1), and even inflict diseases (see Mt. (9:33; Lk. 13:11, 16) and mental disorders (see Mt. 17:15). Demon possession is when the demon indwells you and controls you. This cannot happen to Christians who are already indwelt with the Holy Spirit. Demon influence, however, is possible for Christians. The difference being the position of (i.e., in for unbelievers and out for believers) and power (i.e., they control the unbeliever and persuade believers) of the demon. All demons will eventually be cast into the lake of fire with Satan (see Mt. 25:41). Review 1. List a scripture that support the idea that angels are innumerable and one for them being spirit beings. 2. What scriptural support is there for the present ministry of angels with believers? 3. Give scriptural support for Satan being a fallen angel. 4. In general, what is the Christian’s defense against Satan? 5. What scriptural support is there for demons being fallen angels? 6. What is the difference between demon possession and influence? 7. What scriptural support is there for demons being Satan’s helpers in hindering God’s program? _____________________________________ SIN Sin is anything contrary to the character of God. We know that God cannot sin, but yet sin must have been allowed in His planning. His planning included a savior from the foundation of the world (see Rev. 13:8). The closest we get to sin’s origin is Ezekiel 28:15, which notes that sin was found in Satan. Some angels followed Satan into sin, and humanity’s sin originated in Eden. Personal sin, whether willful or of ignorance, results in a loss of fellowship. The remedy for which is forgiveness (i.e., taking the payment of debt and guilt) and justification (i.e., the addition of Christ’s righteousness to believing sinners). The sin nature is the capacity and inclination to sin (see II Cor. 4:4; Eph. 4:18; Rom. 1:18-3:20), which results in total depravity and spiritual death. The sin nature is passed on from birth (see Ps. 51:5) and is remedied by redemption, which includes the nature or capacity to serve Christ, and the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, which provides victory over the judge sin nature. Imputed sin is humanity’s participation in Adam’s first sin (see Rom. 5:12), which results in physical death, and is remedied by the imputing of Christ’s righteousness (see II Cor. 5:21). Christians sin (see I Jn. 1:8-10), even though the standard is to walk in the light (see I Jn. 1:7). The penalty of Christian sin is loss of fellowship (see I J1:6), church excommunication (see I Cor. 5:4-5), chastisement (see Heb. 12:6), and sometimes physical death (see I Cor. 11:30). The remedy for sin is living the Word of God (see Ps. 119:11), the intercession of Christ (see Jn. 17:15), and the indwelling of the Holy Spirit (see Jn. 7:37-39). Review 1. What is sin, and where did it come from? 2. What is the sin nature and its remedy? 3. How are Christians to prevent their personal sin as well as handle their failures to prevent sin? ____________________________________________________________ 4. List at least one scriptural penalty for Christian sin. SALVATION The death of Christ provided a substitute for sinners’ death (see Mt. 20:28; II Cor. 5:21), redemption from the penalty of sin (see II Pet. 2:1; Gal 3:13), reconciled us with God (see II Cor. 5:19; Rom. 5:10), served as the judgment of the sin nature (see Rom. 6:1-10), ended the Mosaic Law (see Rom. 10:4; Col. 2:14; II Cor. 3:7-11), provides for Christian cleansing (see I Jn. 1:7-9), and provides for pre-cross sin removal (see Rom. 3:25). We saw types of Christ’s death with the offering of Isaac (see Gen. 22), the Pass Over (see Ex. 12), the levitical offering (see Lev. 1-5), the red heifer (see Num. 19), the day of atonement (see Lev. 16), and the Tabernacle. Jesus’ death was unlimited in value. He died for all of humanity’s sin (see II Pet 2:1; II Cor. 5:19; I Jn. 2:2). His death is only effective for the elect - those who receive Him by faith. The Holy Spirit is needed to convict and regenerate because of humanity’s depravity (see Jn. 16:7-11; Tit. 3:5; Rom. 3:10-18). To be saved is to be accepted, as suggested by phrases like redeemed (see Rom. 3:24), reconciled (see II Cor. 5:19-21), forgiven (see Rom. 3:25), delivered (see Col. 1:13), accepted (see Eph. 1:6), justified (see Rom. 3:24), and glorified (see Rom. 8:30). To be saved is to have position, as suggested by terms like citizens of heaven (see Phil. 3:20), members of a holy and royal priesthood (see I Pet. 2:5-9), members of the family of God (see Eph. 2:19), adopted (see Gal. 4:5), and members of a peculiar people (see I Pet. 2:9). To be saved is to inherit completeness in Christ (see Col. 2:9-10), possession of every spiritual blessing (see Eph. 1:3), and heir to heaven (see I Pet. 1:4). To be saved is to be enabled because of grace (see Rom. 6:14), redeem from the law (see II Cor. 3:6-13), and indwelt by the persons of the Godhead (see Gal. 2:20; I Cor. 6:19). To be saved is to have the security of once saved, always saved (see Jn. 13:1, 10:28-30; Jude 24; Heb. 7:25; I Jn. 2:1; I Cor. 12:13; Eph. 4:30; Rom 8:28-39). If Hebrews 6:4-6 teaches losing, it teaches a second chance also. John 15:6 is probably a reference to the judgment seat of Christ. James 2:14-26 talks about a non-working faith is not saving faith. II Peter 2 and Jude are referring to false teachers (see Jude 19; Rom. 8:9). Matthew 24:13 refers to the end of the Tribulation. Somehow God has already chosen who He will save – election (see Rom. 9; Eph. 1; Acts 13:48; Rom. 8:27-30). We are saved only and simply by faith in Jesus as our savior from and substitute for the penalty of sin (see Jn. 1:12; Acts 16:31). Surrender, baptism, repentance, and confession are nice and should take place. However, faith alone saves (see Eph. 2:8-9). Review 1. Name two scriptural consequences of Jesus’ death. 2. What does the Holy Spirit do in salvation? 3. How can you scripturally support the notion that Christians are eternal citizens of Heaven (i.e., security and possession)? 4. Give scriptural support for election and salvation by faith in Jesus only. THE CHURCH The Church is not Judaism (see Eph. 2:15) nor the kingdom (see Mt. 6:10; Lk. 19:11; Rev. 11:15). It is the believers from Pentecost to the Rapture that exist at both a universal and local level. The universal Church (notice the capital “c”) is composed of all believers from Pentecost to the Rapture (see Col. 1:18; I Cor. 12:13). It was founded by Christ, in that He was the teacher, builder, and sender of the body forming Spirit (see Mt. 16:18; I Cor. 12:13; Jn. 14:26). Pentecost was the beginning, in that it was then that the baptizing of the Spirit and the forming of the body began (see I Cor. 12:13; Acts 1:5; 11:15). The foundation of the Church is Jesus (see Mt. 16:18; I Pet. 2:4-8), and it is pictured several ways in the Bible but always subordinate to and dependent up Christ (see Jn. 10, 15; Eph. 2:19-21; I Pet. 2; I Cor. 12; Rom. 5; Eph. 5). The Church age ends at the Rapture (see II Thess. 2; Rev. 3:10-11; I Thess. 1:10). The local church (notice the small “c”) is a group of people who profess to having accepted Christ as savior and the Bible as their authoritative guide in promoting Christianity as a local church. The church is to have a Pastor (Elder refers more to the office. Bishop refers more to the function of overseeing. Pastor refers more to the gift of shepherding. All refer to what Baptists call the Pastor). The Pastor is God’s person who is sent to both feed and lead the church (see Jer. 3:15; I Tim. 3:1-6; Tit. 1:7-9; I Tim. 5:17; Acts 20:28; I Pet. 5:1-4; Heb. 13:17). The deacons are to be servants under the Pastor, in relation to the church (see Acts 6:1-6; Phil. 1:1; I Tim. 3:8-13). The concept of deaconess is perhaps supported by Romans 16:1 and I Timothy 3:11. Some hold that this is a service or honorary role for the wives of deacons, while others hold that they are female deacons. The church has at least two ordinances - Communion and Baptism (see I Cor. 11:23-26; Mt. 28:19-20). The church is to be governed by God (i.e., Theocracy) through His Pastor, even though there are those who believe in hierarchical church, federal church, and congregational church government. The mission of the church is to evangelize the lost and edify the saints God’s way (see Mt. 28:19-20; Heb. 11:6; Mt. 5:13-16). Review 1. What two scriptures support the notions that the Church is neither Judaism nor the Kingdom? 2. According to Matthew 16:18, who is the founder of the Church? 3. Give scriptural support for the Church starting at Pentecost, ending at the Rapture, and composed of all believers between these points. 4. What is the local church? 5. What is the Pastor's job? 6. What is the Deacon’s job? _______ 7. What are two ordinances of the church? 8. In light of the scriptures such as Jeremiah 3:15; Acts 20:28; I Peter 5:1-4; I Timothy 3:4-5; Hebrews 13:17; 11:6; Proverbs 14:12, is God to rule the church through the Pastor or is the church simply a democratic group out to do the best it knows to please God? 9. What is the mission of the Church? FUTURE THINGS Even though there are those who believe in a post-millennial view or an amillennial view, the writer holds a pre-millennial view. It says the Second Coming of Christ is before the millennium here on Earth (see Rev. 20). Regarding the Rapture of the Church, the post-millennialists and amillennialists see the second coming as concurrent events. The pre-millennialist have several views like the mid-Tribulation Rapture, post-Tribulation Rapture, and Partial Rapture. The writer holds the pre-Tribulation Rapture view (see Rev. 3:10; II Thess. 2; Rev. 6:17; I Thess. 1:10, 5:9, 6). The Rapture is the meeting of Christ and the saints in the air. Mortality will turn to immortality; Christ will come down; saints will go up; and the dead will be resurrected (see I Thess. 4:13-18; I Cor. 15:51-57; Jn. 14:1-3). The Tribulation is the seven years shown unto Daniel as the 70th week that is noted for judgment of the world, persecution of Israel, the rise and dominion of the antichrist, and the salvation of multitudes (see Dan. 9:27; Rev. 11:2-3; 6, 8-9, 16; Mt. 24:21, 9; 22; Rev. 12:17; II Thess. 2; Rev. 13, 7). The Tribulation will end at the battle of Armageddon and the return of Christ (see Rev. 19). The Millennium is the 1,000 year earthly reign of Christ, which will be noted for peace and the binding of Satan, until the period is over (see Rev. 19:16; Isa. 11:2-5; Rev. 20). The capital of Christ’s reign will be at Jerusalem (see Isa. 2:3). This period is known as the kingdom of heaven (see Mt. 6:10), the kingdom of God (see Lk. 19:11), the kingdom of Christ (see Rev. 11:15), the regeneration (see Mt. 19:28), the times of refreshing (see Acts 3:19), and the world to come (see Heb. 2:5). There are a number of judgments in the Bible. There is the judgment of the Gentiles (or nations; see Mt. 25:31-46; Joel 3:2). Christ will judge the gentiles at His second coming, in the valley of Jehoshaphat. The issue is the treatment of Israel, and the results will be entry into the Millennium or being cast into the lake of fire. There is the judgment of Israel (see Ezek. 20:37-38). Christ will judge the Jews at His second coming on Earth. The issue will be their acceptance of Christ as savior, and the results will be either entry into the Millennium or being lost. There is the judgment of fallen angels (see Jude 6; I Cor. 6:3). Christ and the believers will judge the fallen angels. The time and place are not clear, but it will probably be after the Millennium. The issue is disobedience to God in following Satan, and the result is to be cast into the lake of fire. There is the judgment of the unsaved dead (see Rev. 20:11-15). Christ will judge the unsaved dead, before the great white throne, after the Millennium. The issue is their rejection of the savior and their punishable works. They will end up in the lake of fire. There is the judgment of believers’ works (see I Cor. 3:11-15; II Cor. 5:10). Christ will judge after the Rapture, in Heaven, the works of the believers. The results will either be rewards or loss of rewards. The resurrection of the just includes the Old Testament saints, the Tribulation saints, and the Church age saints (see Lk. 14:14; Jn. 5:28-29; Dan. 12:2; Rev. 20:4; I Thess. 4:16). All of these are the first resurrection. Some believe it will happen at the Rapture, and some believe at the Second Coming. The resurrection of the unjust is the second resurrection that results in the second death. Revelation 20:11-15 teaches the resurrected will be judged before the great white throne. Review 1. What scriptural support is there for the pre-millennial view of the Second Coming of Christ? 2. Give scriptural support for the pre-Tribulation Rapture view. 3. Where does the Bible teach that the Tribulation will end with the battle of Armageddon and the return of Christ? 4. Give scriptural support for the Millennium being 1,000 years of peace, Satanic confinement, and Christ rulership. 5. List the five judgments of the end times. 6. Give scriptural support for the resurrection of the unjust. _______ CONCLUSION This has been a challenging course. You should feel as if you only have a skeletal understanding and much meat needs to be put on the bones. I encourage your further study. The P. C. Study Bible CD-ROM is an outstanding resource. In relation to Bible Overview, I recommend the Ryrie Study Bible, the Living Bible, the Parallel Bible, the Expositor Bible Commentaries, Unger’s Bible Dictionary, and the Strong’s Concordance. In relation to Doctrine Overview, I recommend Christian Theology (Emery H. Bancroft. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1976), The Moody Handbook of Theology (Paul Enns. Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1989), Introduction to Theology (Owen C. Thomas. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing, 1983), and Faith Seeking Understanding (Daniel L. Migliore. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991). Use what God has given you to be profitable for His sake (see Mt. 25:14-30). Quiz on Bible and Doctrine Overview (Use the back and extra paper as needed.) 1. What are the general terms of the old and new covenants? 2. How does the eight book groupings relate to the two covenants? 3. Which books make up the eight book groupings? 4. What does revelation, inspiration, and illumination mean? 5. What is the major idea of the decree of God? 6. Was Jesus God or man? Why did Jesus die? What is Jesus doing now? 7. What does it mean to be indwelt by the Spirit and filled with the Spirit? 8. Is man the produce of divine creation or evolution? What were the four areas of sin in the garden? 9. What scripture supports angels aiding believers right now? What scripture supports the devil being a fallen angel? What is the difference between demon possession and influence? 10. What are some possible scriptural effects of sin in a Christian’s life? 11. How are the wages of a person’s sin paid for, so that he/she can go to Heaven? 12. What scripture supports the existence of a universal Church? What is the mission of the local church? 13. What are the rapture, tribulation, and millennium? What is the difference between the “Great White Throne Judgment” and the “Judgment Seat of Christ”? (REB 1/96; updated 6/09)